Not one But Many Methodologies - Choose the easiest one

Only POWERLINGO Gives the Flexibility to Have So Many METHODOLOGIES to Choose From. You Can Try Re-Try Any METHODOLOGY And Then Finalise For Your Learning. You Can Switch Methodology Any Time Later Also

Essential Full Audio Course 90 Lessons – 1/2 to 1 hour each

JAPANESE – Unit 1

SPANISH Lesson 10

ARABIC Lesson 15

Essential Full Audio Course

The PowerLingo  Essential Audio Course is a language acquisition method developed based on four main principles:

Anticipation

Graduated interval recall

Organic learning

Learning like a child

This breakthrough audio programs use a natural mode of interactive communication — questions and answers; statement and rejoinder; give and take — beginning with the most frequently utilized vocabulary native speakers use in their every day conversations with each other. These are the most useful words and structures every language learner needs to insure communication.

The research suggested that the way we learned our own language as a child was nothing like the way we are taught languages at school. With this background a method was devised what was called as ‘organic learning’, where vocabulary, pronunciation and comprehension are presented simultaneously. The result is an understanding of the language as native speakers use it

How does the Essential Audio Program System achieve so much so quickly?

Language can be divided into two distinct areas: Grammatical Structures (function words) and Concrete Vocabulary (content words). Most of everyday conversation is composed of function words – for example, in the sentence “Could you tell me the way to the hotel?”, only ‘hotel’ is a content word. By focusing on the function elements, this enables the student to comprehend and employ the structure of a new language quickly and naturally.

How does the Essential Audio Program System ensure that you remember what you have learned?

Another key component of this method is Graduated Interval Recall, where essential information is repeated at precisely the right time for you to retain it. The intervals between repetitions are gradually increased until you remember the information without being reminded. This timed recycling of information moves your new knowledge from short-term to long-term memory with the least possible effort.

Essential Full Audio Course 90 – TEXT

Essential Full Audio Course – TEXT (Chinese)

Lesson 01

duì bù qǐ qǐng wèn nǐ huì shuō yīng wén ma

对不起,请问你会说英文吗?

bù huì wǒ bù huì shuō yīng wén

不会,我不会说英文。

wǒ huì shuō yī diǎn ér (dian+er=diar) pǔ tōng huà

我会说一点儿普通话。

nǐ shì měi guó rén ma

你是美国人吗?

shì wǒ shì měi guó rén

是, 我是美国人。

Lesson 02

duì bù qǐ qǐng wèn nǐ huì shuō pǔ tōng huà ma?

对不起,请问你会说普通话吗?

wǒ huì shuō yī diǎn ér

我会说一点儿。

nǐ shì měi guó rén ma

你是美国人吗?

shì nǐ huì shuō yīng wén ma

是, 你会说英文吗?

bù huì wǒ bù huì shuō yīng wén

不,会,我不会说英文。

Lesson 03

nǐ hǎo

你好。

nǐ hǎo

你好。

nǐ huì shuō pǔ tōng huà ma

你会说普通话吗?

wǒ huì shuō yī diǎn ér wǒ shuō de bù hǎo

我会说一点儿, 我说得不好。

nǐ shì měi guó rén ma

你是美国人吗?

shì

是.

kě shì nǐ pǔ tōng huà shuō de hěn hǎo

可是,你普通话说得很好.

Lesson 04

duì bù qǐ qǐng wèn nǐ shì zhōng guó rén ma

对不起,请问,你是中国人吗?

shì wǒ shì zhōng guó rén nǐ ne

是, 我是中国人,你呢?

wǒ shì měi guó rén

我是美国人.

kě shì nǐ huì shuō pǔ tōng huà

可是,你会说普通话.

wǒ huì shuō yī diǎn ér wǒ shuō de bù hǎo

我会说一点儿,我说得不好.

nǐ pǔ tōng huà shuō de hěn hǎo

你普通话说得很好

xiè xiè nǐ

谢谢你.

Lesson 05

duì bù qǐ qǐng wèn xué yuàn lù zài nǎ ér (na+er=nar)

对不起,请问, 学院路在哪儿?

zài nà ér (na+er=nar)

在那儿.

cháng ān jiē ne shì zài zhè ér (zhe+er=zher) ma

长安街呢? 是在这儿吗?

shì shì zài zhè ér

是, 是在这儿.

nǐ huì shuō yīng wén ma

你会说英文吗?

bù huì wǒ bù huì shuō yīng wén zài jiàn

不会,我不会说英文.再见

zài jiàn

再见.

wǒ bù míng bái nǐ shuō shén me

(我不明白你说什么?)

Lesson 06

nǐ hǎo

你好.

nǐ hǎo

你好.

wǒ xiǎng chī yī diǎn ér dōng xi nǐ ne

我想吃一点儿东西,你呢?

wǒ yě xiǎng chī yī diǎn ér dōng xi

我也想吃一点儿东西.

nǐ xiǎng hē yī diǎn ér dōng xi ma

你想喝一点儿东西吗?

xiǎng wǒ xiǎng hē yī diǎn ér dōng xi

想,我想喝一点儿东西

qù nǎ ér hē

去那儿喝?

qù cháng ān jiē

去长安街.

Lesson 07

nǐ xiǎng shén me shí hòu chī xiàn zài ma

你想什么时候吃? 现在吗?

wǒ xiǎng guò yī huì ér (hui+er=huir) chī kě shì wǒ xiǎng xiàn

我想过一会儿吃. 可是我想现

zài hē yī diǎn ér dōng xi

在喝 一点儿东西.

nǐ xiǎng qù nǎ ér hē

你想去哪儿喝?

wǒ bù zhī dào

我不知道.

nǐ xiǎng qù wǒ nà ér hē ma

你想去我那儿喝吗?

wǒ xiǎng qù kā fēi tīng hē

我想去咖啡听喝.

Lesson 08

wáng xiǎo jiě nǐ xiǎng xiàn zài chī yī diǎn ér

王小姐, 你想现在吃一点儿

dōng xi ma

东西吗?

xiè xiè nǐ lǐ xiān shēng wǒ bù xiǎng xiàn zài

谢谢你,李先生,我不想现在

chī kě shì wǒ xiǎng hē yī diǎn ér dōng xi

吃. 可是我想喝一点儿东西

hǎo nǐ xiǎng hē shén me ne

好,你想喝什么呢?

yī diǎn ér chá bù yī diǎn ér pí jiǔ

一点儿茶, 不,一点儿啤酒.

wǒ yě xiǎng hē yī diǎn ér pí jiǔ xiǎo jiě wǒ

我也想喝一点儿啤酒,小姐,我

xiǎng yào liǎng bēi pí jiǔ

想要两杯啤酒.

xiǎo jiě

(Waitress 小姐)

Lesson 09

wáng xiǎo jiě nǐ hǎo

王小姐,你好.

nǐ hǎo

你好.

wáng xiǎo jiě nǐ xiǎng xiàn zài zuò shén me

王小姐,你想现在做什么?

wǒ bù zhī dào nǐ ne

我不知道,你呢?

wǒ xiǎng xiàn zài chī wǔ fàn nǐ xiǎng gēn wǒ yī

我想现在吃午饭,你想跟我一

qǐ chī ma

起吃吗?

xiǎng kě shì wǒ xiǎng qù běi jīng fàn diàn chī

想,可是,我想去北京饭店吃,

hǎo ma

好吗?

hǎo wǒ yě xiǎng qù běi jīng fàn diàn chī

好我也想去北京饭店吃.

Lesson 10

lǐ xiān shēng wǒ xiǎng gēn nǐ yī qǐ chī yī diǎn

李先生,我想跟你一起吃一点

ér dōng xi hǎo ma

儿东西. 好吗?

jǐ diǎn zhōng liǎng diǎn zhōng hǎo ma

几点钟? 两点钟,好吗?

bù hǎo wǒ xiǎng guò yī huì ér chī

不好,我想过一会儿吃.

bā diǎn zhōng hái shì jiǔ diǎn zhōng

八点钟还是九点钟?

jiǔ diǎn zhōng

九点钟.

hǎo

好.

Tele Series Video Learn Course – 52 episodes – 1/2 to 1 hour each

“Tele Series Video Learn” – Drama & Skit Based Full Video Course

“Tele Series Video Learn ” is a unique way of learning. It uses a gripping story of 52 episodes with solid plot, drama, mystery, suspense and thrill with characters of different shades. It takes students step by step to unfold the story with entertainment and deep involvement.

“ Tele Series Video Learn” teaches speaking, listening, and comprehension skills in foreign languages . It uses a soap opera and immerses students in everyday situations with native speakers and introduces the cultures, accents, and dialects of various regions. Understanding of foreign language and appreciation of many diverse cultures increase as students become absorbed in the mysterious and entertaining story. Closed captioning in language can be used as a teaching and literacy resource.

Follow the story of center character and the team, as they create a language course using a “language studies” approach. They weave together mini dramas set in the local destinations, interviews with native speakers, and documentary footage on history and culture, all of which help increase fluency in and comprehension of the language. The narratives, presented in natural, authentic language, cover topics such as school, employment, travel, and personal relationships. Time codes on the videos make it easy to find specific segments. Levels 1 and 2 address vocabulary, topics, and structures for basic communication; level 3 continues many of these topics but goes into greater depth. The series is also appropriate for teacher professional development.

This series uses active participation to increase fluency in the foreign language, while introducing the individual language culture. The proven language-immersion method is presented within a humorous teleplay with native speakers of all ages and backgrounds. The storyline of an American student and a young woman’s adventures in regional locations and the French countryside is reinforced by an on-camera instruction. The series is also appropriate for teacher professional development.

Foreign Services Department Course

FSD Greek Unit 1

FSD Korean Unit 19

FSD Chinese Unit 03

“Foreign Services Department Course”
The courses range from 25 – 125 units with 10 or so hours per unit , making the full length course to 250 hours to 1250 hours, designed to be studied over 6-12 months full time. Comes with standard instructions and manual

Foreign Services Department Learning Course

Foreign Services Department Learning Course is developed by the ( US ) Federal Government’s primary training institution for officers and support personnel of the U.S. foreign affairs community.

Over the years, the department has researched, designed and taught language courses to Foreign Service staff and diplomats. These courses are now available and licensed to the Public Domain. Virtually all the foreign languages courses have been developed and are very effective for those who have zero knowledge of the new language.

These courses are structured with different graded modules with written scripts and audio material. The full length course can easily take 6 months to 1 year for a easy speaking of the language.

The language teaching method used in Foreign Services Department Learning Courses is known as ‘ Guided Imitation .’

It follows two main concepts:

Learning Concept 1: Over learning

The course uses the technique of over learning, which takes a small body of material, and thoroughly drills it, so that the concepts and dialogues taught are learned in a concentrated fashion. By concentrating on a small amount of material at any one time, this allows the student to ‘over learn’ it, allowing it to become thoroughly ingrained, before moving on to the next concept.

Following lessons the FSI Spanish course review the previously learned concepts by incorporating them.

Learning Concept 2: Guided Imitation of Sound and Patterns

The courses try to emphasize the learning of spoken conversational aspect- as it is really spoken in day-to-day usage. For this reason the recordings are not slowed down, making it initially a little difficult for the language learner, and requiring a degree of repetition before the ear tunes in to the spoken phrases.

The Foreign Services Department’s philosophy in this methodology is that slowing down the speech constitutes a form of linguistic distortion.

The Foreign Services Department originally designed the courses to be studied under the tuition of a classroom teacher, so for the home-learner, some sessions with a native Spanish speaker as a teacher will be very beneficial.

The native speaker teacher used in the Foreign Services Department’s actual classes ensures that the student’s are hearing proper pronunciation.

The courses range from 25 – 125 units with 10 or so hours per unit , making the full length course to 250 hours to 1250 hours, designed to be studied over 6-12 months full time . .

 

Travel Mode Audio Course

“Travel Mode Audio Course”
Each language course contains nearly 10-60 lessons with each lesson of 15-30 minutes duration.

Travel Mode Course is a purely audio course and was designed basically not to practically sit as if to study or not to remain confronted to one place while learning language. The idea was to make the learning happen even when you are moving, traveling driving etc. The course is purely based on listening and your reflex responses and learning.

This interactive language course features numbers, dates, words and dialogue. You can also try yourself out on the games, self tests and pronunciation. It then develops into more serious conversations and talking. The new language learning program is designed to equip students with a practical grasp of a foreign language through the use of key words and phrases

This series treats you like a child–in the best possible way–starting with one-word phrases (“please,” “good-by”), counting exercises, and simple nouns (“bus,” “train”) designed to imitate a child’s learning process. First you hear the words in English, then they are repeated slowly in clear, unaccented pronunciations. The method is extremely effective for those who don’t know a thing, or for those who want to brush up by testing themselves when the English words are spoken. The audios emphasize the building blocks of communicating in a foreign country rather than phrases that only apply on the tape and not in real-life exchanges. First part painlessly covers basic verb forms, essential prepositions, near future and past tenses, as well as shopping, hotel reservations, and other travel-related situations. The series includes all the languages in three levels with helpful explanations and lessons.

Each language course contains nearly 90-100 lessons with each lesson of 30 minutes to one hour duration. .

Travel On The Move – ARABIC Track 1

Travel On The Move – PORTUGUESE Track 1

Travel On The Move – SPANISH Track 1

Conversational Audio Course

Teach Yourself – SPANISH -Track 2

Teach Yourself – FRENCH -Track 12

Teach Yourself – ARABIC -Track 1

“Conversational Audio Course”

Conversational Audio Course is a direct interactive course based on real life situations. The conversations begin in certain situations and the characteristics of the conversation depend on the situation. The situation demands certain words and vocabulary and once you are comfortable with the vocabulary of the situation then initiating the conversation and involving in it becomes easy. E.g. If you are in bank for some work then you know exactly what all is done there. But if you are aware of terminology used in that situation then you can carry out things more easily. These are situational conversations which remain more or less same every time and whenever you face them. And these situations are ample in daily life. Imagine your daily routine right from when you get up, then dress up, then breakfast, then leave for work etc. and every activity of yours will need some conversation if you need some help.

These situations are very common and come casually and routinely hence if these are mastered then daily life with new language will make you more comfortable.

There are hundreds of situations one can imagine which are common right from buying different things to moving around the city or gathering information.

Conversational Audio Course is full of different situations and emphasize is given on words and vocabulary used in these situations making it a base for any conversation.

Sentence Creation & Conversation

Sentence Farsi

Sentence Greek

Sentence Hebrew

“Sentence Creation & Conversation”

Every time we want to say something in new language we hesitate because we do not know where to begin and how to phrase it, which word to come first and which to come later. Every language has its own rule for forming sentence. This rule if studied in depth will then be called as grammar. But the prelude to learning grammar is understanding the pattern of sentence formation which then can be used with any vocabulary with any situation.

The underlying principle is that once we know a pattern of sentence then what remains is “fill in the blanks” as per the situation demands. E.g I want tea is same as I want car, I want PC etc. where even when the situations are different we can manage ourselves better.

Once the basic patterns of sentences are understood, the language becomes comfortable to understand and talk.

This is an easy way to get acquainted with the new language and its faster also.

The advantage of this course is that one can always keep on building the patterns for different use.

Sentence Creation & Conversation

Most Common Phrases

“Spanish – sample unit”

Accomodation

el hotel

Tiene…?

una habitación

doble

individual

el baño

Para cuántos días?

Tengo una reserva

Su nombre?

Su pasaporte?

“Spanish – sample unit”

Accomodation

the hotel

Have you got…?

a room

double

single

the bathroom

For how many days?

I have a reservation

Your name?

Your passport

“Sentence Creation & Conversation”

Most Common Phrases (Text)

Just like Conversational Audio Course , this course refers the most common sentences used in daily life. We may not realize as its so routine and common but we use certain sentences or words repeatedly in many situations or generally.

E.g.

Have you finished?

Where are you going?,

Are you coming?

What’s up / what’s new?

Where are you?,

You know this? Etc…

And you may not realize but there are hundreds of such sentences which if one remembers or by-heart them gives a comfortable movement with the new language.

The most common phrases means the most commonly used sentences in daily life. These phrases are very common and can be understood by one and all and they come out so casually that one may not even have to go deeper inside to find out the grammar or rules.

The text format has pronunciation guide in English which gives perfect way to say the word and sentence.

The Most Common Phrases are suitable to most of the learners because these small sentences are easy to use and help you enter the situation.

Most Common Phrases is an easy way to get the flavor of any language and the advantage of this course lies in the fact that it does not follow conventional flow of the learning in any steps. One can even start from the middle of the content and even begin next time at the end making it most flexible and easy option to learn.

While learning with Most Common Phrases the idea is to have the familiarity of the language and also it should not be too complicated and burden some. Hence this course follows a simple way of making you aware of most common way the people speak and chose your pick from the sentences to use it effectively.

Most Common Phrases (Audio)

Most Common Phrases has also an audio component which helps you repeat exactly the way a native speaker does. As the sentences are small and easily understandable one learns to repeat and say by them selves.

Most Common Phrases Audio contains the same content as above with spoken sentences.

Phrase Book ( TEXT)

Japanese Phrase Book                                                                          Learn Japanese Download Contents
  • Grammar
  • Reading and writing
  • Pronunciation guide
    • Vowels
    • Consonants
    • Particles
    • Accent and intonation
  • Phrase list
    • Basics
    • Problems
    • Medical Problems
      • In an emergency
      • Explaining symptoms
    • Numbers
    • Time
      • Clock time
      • Duration
      • Days
      • Days of the Month
      • Months
      • Seasons
      • Writing time and date
    • Colors
    • Transportation
      • Bus and train
      • Directions
      • Taxi
    • Lodging
    • Money
    • Eating
    • On the phone
    • Bars
    • Shopping
    • Family
      • Talking about your own family
      • Talking about another’s family
    • Driving
    • Authority
    • Offensive Language
Japanese ( 日本語 nihongo ) is spoken in Japan , and essentially nowhere else. The language is distinct from Chinese and Korean , although the written form uses Chinese ( kanji ) characters, and is not known to be related to any other language. Grammar Japanese grammar is very modular and flexible, but generally employs a subject-object-verb order, using particles to mark the grammatical functions of the words: 私がハンバーガーを食べる。 watashi-ga hamb?g?-o taberu , “I- [subject-marker] hamburger- [object-marker] eat”. The same sentence can be put this way as well: ハンバーガーを食べる、私が。 hamb?g?-o taberu, watashi-ga . If it is clear what is being spoken about from the context, the subject and/or object are often omitted. Hence ハンバーガーを食べる。 hamb?g?-o taberu , “eating hamburger” can be a perfectly valid sentence. The position of a word within a sentence often has little to no influence to the meaning of the sentence, the relationship between a word and the particle(s) following it is usually more important. Therefore at least some basic travellers’ Japanese can be picked up with relative ease. Additionally to the above mentioned subject/object markers some useful particles are: から kara , “from” – 東京から T?ky?-kara , “from Tokyo” へ e , “to/in the direction of” – 大阪へ ?saka-e , “towards Osaka” まで made , “until” – 大阪まで ?saka-made , “until Osaka” note the difference: I’m riding on the train to Osaka ( e ), but I’m only going to Nara ( made ) で/に de/ni , “at” – although there are many exceptions to this rule, it’s generally: で de , “at a place” – 新宿で会う Shinjuku-de au , “meeting in Shinjuku” に ni , “at a time” – 2時に会う 2ji-ni au , “meeting at 2 o’clock” の no , possessive marker – の no works much like the English “of”, just “backwards”: 千葉の浜 Chiba-no hama , “the beach(es) of Chiba” 私のテレビ watashi-no terebi , “the television of me/my TV” There is no verb “to be” as such. For expressions like “I am …” or “This is …” it is technically sufficient to state the subject or object in question and colloquially this is often what is done. Without sufficient knowledge of the Japanese language and culture one should generally add the polite copula desu though to make the sentence more complete: ジョンです John desu (“I am John”), りんごです ringo desu (“This is an apple”), 赤いです akai desu (“It is red”), etc. Note that since there is no subject given the exact meaning of the above examples depends heavily on context, since all they actually express is “[I am/this is/somebody is] John”, “[this is/something is/…] Apple” etc. The good news is that Japanese has none of the following: gender, declensions or plurals. Nouns never conjugate, almost all verbs are regular and verbs and adjectives conjugate by tense and politeness level. The English sentences “These are apples” and “This is an apple” are both りんごです ringo desu in Japanese. To express singulars or plurals one needs to be more specific: りんご1個です ringo 1-ko desu /りんご2個です ringo 2-ko desu “This is one apple”/”These are two apples”. On the other hand, ジョンでございます John de gozaimasu and ジョンです John desu are both “I am John” in English. The difference lies in the level of politeness, with the former example being more polite. This (culturally very important) politeness system may pose a problem to travellers, since even basic inquiries for e.g. train times will usually be answered in polite, convoluted Japanese. Reading and writing Reading and writing Japanese are advanced skills which take years of work to gain much real proficiency. Japanese themselves use three different writing systems of various complexity, two of which ( hiragana and katakana ) are syllabic and relatively easy to learn with 46 characters each. The set of hiragana characters is illustrated below. The clincher is the set of Chinese characters known as kanji , roughly 2000 of which are in daily use while many more exist. Kanji originated as pictures, where each character originally represented a meaning, idea or concept, not a sound as in English. Even though kanji have since evolved dramatically and many have long since jettisoned any connection to the original concept, the meaning of some simple kanji can still be easily guessed at (see below). The difficulty in reading Japanese lies often in the fact that there is not one single pronunciation associated with a kanji. The kanji 人 for example represents a person, and by itself it may be pronounced hito . The kanji 大 represents the idea of something big (imagine a person with outstretched arms) and can be pronounced as dai or ? . Together they form the word 大人 otona , “adult” (lit. big person ). In the word 外国人 gaikokujin (“foreigner”, lit. outside country person ) the same kanji is pronounced jin . The change in pronunciation exists because in spoken Japanese words are largely distinct, just as they are in English, but the idea of the word can be expressed in writing by combination of already existing kanji. Pronunciation guide Japanese is not a tonal language like Chinese or Thai, and is comparatively easy to pronounce. Vowels Japanese has both short and long vowels and the distinction is often important. In romanized Japanese, long vowels are marked with a macron, so that ? represents “long O”. Hiragana characters ( ひらがな ) a あ / ア like ‘a’ in “f a ther” I い / イ like ‘i’ in “mach i ne” u う / ウ like ‘oo’ in “h oo p” e え / エ like ‘e’ in “s e t” o お / オ like ‘o’ in “r o pe” n ん / ン short ‘n’ at the end of a syllable, pronounced as ‘m’ before ‘b’, ‘p’ or ‘m’. Note that “u” is often weak at the end of syllables. In particular, the common endings -desu and -masu are usually pronounced as “des'” and “mas'” respectively. Consonants k かきくけこ / カキクケコ like ‘k’ in “king” g がぎぐげご / ガギグゲゴ like ‘g’ in “go” s さ すせそ / サ スセソ like ‘s’ in “sit” z ざ ずぜぞ / ザ ズゼゾ like ‘z’ in “haze” t た  てと / タ  テト like ‘t’ in “top” d だ  でど / ダ  デド like ‘d’ in “dog” n なにぬねの / ナニヌネノ like ‘n’ in “nice” h はひ へほ / ハヒヘホ like ‘h’ in “help” p ぱぴぷぺぽ / パピプペポ like ‘p’ in “pig” b ばびぶべぼ / バビブベボ like ‘b’ in “bed” m まみむめも / マミムメモ like ‘m’ in “mother” y や ゆ よ / ヤ ユ ヨ like ‘y’ in “yard” r らりるれろ / ラリルレロ like ‘r’ in “row” (actually a sound between ‘l’ and ‘r’, but closer to ‘r’) w わ     / ワ like ‘w’ in “wall” sh し / シ (s before i) like ‘sh’ in “sheep” j じ / ジ (d before i) like ‘j’ in “jar” ch ち / チ (t before i) like ‘ch’ in “touch” ts つ / ツ (t before u) like ‘ts’ in “hot soup” f ふ / フ (h before u) like ‘wh’ in “who” Particles Japanese uses certain hiragana characters as particles which mark the grammatical function of a word or phrase in a sentence. Some hiragana are pronounced differently when used as a particle: は (topic marker) is pronounced wa , also in こんにちは (kon’nichiwa) へ (direction marker) is pronounced e の (possessive marker) is pronounced no Accent and intonation Avoid placing too much emphasis on particular words or syllables. Japanese does have stress and intonation, but it is significantly flatter than English. Mastering word stress is a more advanced topic and neglecting it at this point should not interfere with meaning. Just trying to keep your intonation relatively flat will make your attempts to speak Japanese more comprehensible to local listeners. When asking questions, you can raise the tone at the end, as in English. Phrase list Common signs 営業中 Open 準備中 Closed 入口 Entrance 出口 Exit 大・中・小 Big / Middle / Small 押 Push 引 Pull お手洗い Toilet 男 Men 女 Women 禁止 Forbidden / Prohibited Basics Hello. こんにちは。  Konnichiwa. ( kon-nee-chee-WAH ) How are you? お元気ですか。  O-genki desu ka? ( oh-GEN-kee dess-KAH? ) Fine, thank you. 元気です。  Genki desu. ( GEN-kee dess ) How about you? あなたは。  Anata wa? ( an-ATA wa ) What is your name? お名前は何ですか。 O-namae wa nan desu ka? ( oh-NAH-mah-eh wah NAHN dess-KAH? ) My name is ____ . ____ です。 ____ desu. ( ____ dess ) Nice to meet you. 始めまして。  Hajimemashite. ( hah-jee-meh-MASH-teh ) Please. (request) お願いします。  Onegai shimasu. ( oh-neh-gigh shee-moss ) Please. (offer) どうぞ。 D?zo. ( DOH-zo ) This person (used when introducing somebody) こちら。 Kochira. ( ko-chi-ra ) Thank you. (formal) どうもありがとうございます。 D?mo arigat? gozaimasu. ( doh-moh ah-ree-GAH-toh go-ZIGH-moss ) Thank you. (informal) どうも。 D?mo. ( doh-moh ) You’re welcome. どういたしまして。 D? itashi mashite. ( doh EE-tah-shee mosh-teh ) Yes. はい。 Hai. ( HIGH ) No. いいえ。 Iie. ( EE-eh ) Excuse me. すみません。 Sumimasen. ( soo-mee-mah-sen ) I’m sorry. 御免なさい。 Gomen-nasai. ( goh-men-nah-sigh ) Goodbye. (long-term) さようなら。 Say?nara. ( sa-YOH-nah-rah ) Goodbye. ( informal ) それでは。 Sore dewa. ( SOH-reh deh-wah ) I can’t speak Japanese [well]. 日本語が「よく」話せません。 Nihongo ga [yoku] hanasemasen. ( nee-hohn-goh gah [yo-koo] hah-nah-seh-mah-sen ) Do you speak Japanese? 日本語が話せますか。 Nihongo ga hanasemasuka. ( ni-HON-go gah hah-nah-seh-moss-KAH? ) Yes, a little. はい、少し。 Hai, sukoshi. ( HIGH sko-shee ) Do you speak English? 英語が話せますか。 Eigo ga hanasemasuka? ( AY-goh gah hah-nah-seh-moss-KAH? ) Is there someone here who speaks English? だれか英語が話せますか。 Dareka eigo ga hanasemasuka? ( dah-reh-kah AY-goh gah hah-nah-seh-moss-KAH? ) Please speak slowly. ゆっくり話してください。 Yukkuri hanashite kudasai. ( YOU-cury hanash-te kud-asaee ) Please say it again. もう一度言ってください。 Mou ichido itte kudasai. ( mo ICHI-doh eete kud-asaee ) Help! たすけて ! Tasukete! ( tahs-keh-teh! ) Look out! あぶない ! Abunai! ( ah-boo-NIGH! ) Good morning. おはようございます。 Ohay? gozaimasu. ( oh-hah-YOH go-zigh-moss ) Good evening. こんばんは。 Konbanwa. ( kohm-bahn-wah ) Good night ( to sleep ) おやすみなさい。 Oyasuminasai. ( oh-yah-soo-mee-nah-sigh ) I don’t understand. わかりません。 Wakarimasen. ( wah-kah-ree-mah-sen ) I am not Japanese. 日本人じゃありません。 Nihon-jin ja arimasen. ( nee-hon-jin ja a-ree-ma-sen ) Where is the toilet? トイレはどこですか。 Toire wa doko desu ka? ( toy-reh wah DOH-koh dess kah? ) What? なに。 Nani? ( nan-ee ) Where? どこ。 Doko? ( do-koh ) Who? だれ。 Dare? ( da-reh ) When? いつ。 Itsu? ( it-soo ) Which? どれ。 Dore? ( do-reh ) How Much? いくら。 Ikura? ( ee-koo-ra ) Problems What part of “no” don’t you understand? The Japanese are famously reluctant to say the word “no”, and in fact the language’s closest equivalent, いいえ iie , is largely limited to denying compliments you have received. (“Your Japanese is excellent! ” Iie , it is very bad!”). But there are numerous other ways of expressing “no”, so here are a few to watch out for. いいです。 結構です。 Ii desu. Kekk? desu. “It’s good/excellent.” Used when you don’t want more beer, don’t want your bent? lunch microwaved, and generally are happy to keep things as they are. Accompany with teeth-sucking and handwaving to be sure to get your point across – both of these expressions may be interpreted as positive responses if you don’t include enough nonverbal indications to the contrary. ちょっと難しいです・・・ Chotto muzukashii desu… Literally “it’s a little difficult”, but in practice “it’s completely impossible.” Often just abbreviated to sucking in air through teeth, saying “chotto” and looking pained. Take the hint. 申し訳ないですけど・・・ M?shiwakenai desukedo… “This is inexcusable but…” But no. Used by sales clerks and such to tell you that you cannot do or have something. 駄目です。 Dame desu. “It’s no good.” Used by equals and superiors to tell you that you cannot do or have something. The Kansai equivalent is akan . 違います。 Chigaimasu. “It is different.” What they really mean is “you’re wrong”. The casual form chigau and the Kansai contraction chau are also much used. Leave me alone. ほっといて。 ( hottoite. ) Don’t touch me! さわらないで ! ( sawaranaide! ) I’ll call the police. 警察をよびます。 ( keisatsu o yobimasu ) Police! 警察 ! ( keisatsu ) Stop! Thief! 待て ! どろぼう ! ( mate! dorob?! ) I need your help. たすけてください。 ( tasukete kudasai ) It’s an emergency. 緊急です。 ( kinky? desu ) I’m lost. 迷子です。 ( maigo desu ) I lost my bag. かばんをなくしました。 ( kaban o nakushimashita ) I dropped my wallet. 財布をおとしました。 ( saifu o otoshimashita ) I’m sick. 病気です。 ( by?ki desu ) I don’t feel well. 気分がわるいです。  ( kibun ga warui desu ) I’ve been injured. けがしました。 ( kega shimashita ) Please call a doctor. 医者を呼んでください。 ( isha o yonde kudasai ) Can I use your phone? 電話を使って も いいですか ? ( denwa o tsukatte mo iidesuka ) Medical Problems In an emergency I need a doctor. お医者さんに見てもらいたいです。 ( oisha-san ni mite moraitai desu ) I need a doctor who can speak English. 英語の出来るお医者さんはいますか? ( eigo no dekiru oisha-san wa imasu ka. ) Please take me to a doctor. お医者さんに連れて行って下さい。 ( oisha san ni tsurete itte kudasai ) My wife/husband/child is sick. 妻 / 主人 / 子供が病気です。 ( tsuma/shujin/kodomo ga by?ki desu ) Please call an ambulance. 救急車を呼んで下さい。 ( ky?ky?sha o yonde kudasai. ) I need first aid. 応急手当をして下さい。 ( ?ky? teate o shite kudasai ) I need to go to the emergency room. 救急室にいかなければなりません。 ( ky?ky?shitsu ni ikanakereba narimasen ) How long will it take to get better? 治るまでどの位かかりますか? ( naoru made dono kurai kakarimasu ka? ) Where is the pharmacy? 薬局はどこですか? ( yakkyoku wa doko desu ka? ) I’m allergic to _____. 私は _____ アレルギーです。 ( watashi wa _____ arerugii desu ) …antibiotics 抗生物質 ( k?sei busshitsu ) …aspirin アスピリン ( asupirin ) …codeine コデイン ( kodein ) …dairy products 乳製品 ( nyuuseihin ) …food coloring 人工着色料 ( jink? chakushokury? ) …MSG 味の素 ( ajinomoto ) …penicillin ペニシリン ( penishirin ) …pollen 花粉 ( kafun ) Explaining symptoms Body parts head 頭 ( atama ) face 顔 ( kao ) eyes 目 ( me ) nose 鼻 ( hana ) throat 喉 ( nodo ) chin 顎 ( ago ) neck 首 ( kubi ) shoulders 肩 ( kata ) chest 胸 ( mune ) waist 腰 ( koshi ) arms 腕 ( ude ) wrists 手首 ( tekubi ) fingers 指 ( yubi ) hands 手 ( te ) elbow 肘 ( hiji ) buttocks お尻 ( oshiri ) thigh 腿 ( momo ) knee 膝 ( hiza ) legs, foot 足 ( ashi ) My _____ hurts. _____ が痛い。 ( _____ ga itai ) I have a fever. 熱があります。 ( Netsu ga arimasu ) I cough a lot. 咳がでます。 ( Seki ga demasu ) I feel listless. 体がだるい。 ( Karada ga darui ) I feel nauseated. 吐き気がします。 ( Hakike ga shimasu ) I feel dizzy. めまいがします。 ( Memai ga shimasu ) I have the chills. 寒気がします。 ( Samuke ga shimasu ) I swallowed something. 何かを呑んでしまいました。 ( Nanika o nonde shimaimashita ) I am bleeding. 出血です。 ( Shukketsu desu ) I broke a bone. 骨折です。 ( Kossetsu desu ) He/ She is unconscious. 意識不明です。 ( Ishiki fumei desu ) I burned myself. 火傷です。 ( Yakedo desu ) He/ She cannot breath. 呼吸困難です。 ( Koky? konnan desu ) He/ She had a heart attack. 心臓発作です。 ( Shinz? hossa desu ) My vision is worse. 視力が落ちました。 ( Shiryokuga ochimashita ) I can’t hear well. 耳が良く聴こえません。 ( Mimi ga yoku kikoemasen ) My nose bleeds a lot. 鼻血が良くでます。 ( Hanaji ga yoku demasu ) Numbers While Arabic (Western) numerals are employed for most uses in Japan , you will occasionally still spot Japanese numerals at eg. markets and the menus of fancy restaurants. The characters used are nearly identical to Chinese numerals, and like Chinese , Japanese uses groups of 4 digits, not 3. “One million” is thus 百万 ( hyaku-man ), literally “hundred ten-thousands”. There are both Japanese and Chinese readings for most numbers, but presented below are the more commonly used Chinese readings. Note that, due to superstition ( shi also means “death”), 4 and 7 typically use the Japanese readings yon and nana instead. Down for the count When counting objects, Japanese uses special counter words. For example, “two beers” is biiru nihon ( ビール2本 ), where ni is “two” and -hon means “bottles”. Alas, the list of possible counters is vast, but some useful ones include: small roundish objects (apples, sweets) 個 -ko people 人 -nin , 名様 -meisama (polite) flat objects (papers, tickets) 枚 -mai long objects (bottles, pens) 本 -hon, -bon, -pon cups, glasses 杯 -hai, -bai, -pai nights of a stay 泊 -haku, -paku Note how many counters change form depending on the previous number: one, two, three glasses are ippai , nihai , sanbai respectively. You’ll still be understood if you get these wrong though. For numbers from one to ten, an old counting system is often used which applies to virtually any object you may want to count, without the need to attach a specific counter: • 一つ hitotsu • 二つ futatsu • 三つ mittsu • 四つ yottsu • 五つ itsutsu • 六つ muttsu • 七つ nanatsu • 八つ yattsu • 九つ kokonotsu 10 十 t? It is always a good idea to use a specific counter whenever possible, but using the generic numbers above is often equally acceptable. This system is rarely used anymore for numbers greater than ten. 0 〇 , 零 ( zero or rei ) 1 一 ( ichi ) 2 二 ( ni ) 3 三 ( san ) 4 四 ( yon or shi ) 5 五 ( go ) 6 六 ( roku ) 7 七 ( nana or shichi ) 8 八 ( hachi ) 9 九 ( ky? ) 10 十 ( j? ) 11 十一 ( j?-ichi ) 12 十二 ( j?-ni ) 13 十三 ( j?-san ) 14 十四 ( j?-yon ) 15 十五 ( j?-go ) 16 十六 ( j?-roku ) 17 十七 ( j?-nana ) 18 十八 ( j?-hachi ) 19 十九 ( j?-kyuu ) 20 二十 ( ni-j? ) 21 二十一 ( ni-j?-ichi ) 22 二十二 ( ni-j?-ni ) 23 二十三 ( ni-j?-san ) 30 三十 ( san-j? ) 40 四十 ( yon-j? ) 50 五十 ( go-j? ) 60 六十 ( ro-ku-j? ) 70 七十 ( nana-j? ) 80 八十 ( hachi-j? ) 90 九十 ( ky?-j? ) 100 百 ( hyaku ) 200 二百 ( ni-hyaku ) 300 三百 ( san-byaku ) 1000 千 ( sen ) 2000 二千 ( ni-sen ) 10,000 一万 ( ichi-man ) 1,000,000 百万 ( hyaku-man ) 100,000,000 一億 ( ichi-oku ) 1,000,000,000,000 一兆 ( itch? ) 0.5 〇・五 ( rei ten go ) 0.56 〇・五六 ( rei ten g?-roku ) number _____ ( train, bus, etc. ) _____ 番 ( ____ ban ) half 半分 ( hanbun ) less (few) 少ない ( sukunai ) more (many) 多い ( ooi ) Time now 今 ( ima ) later 後で ( atode ) before 前に ( mae ni ) before __ ___ の前に ( ___ no mae ni ) morning 朝 ( asa ) afternoon 午後 ( gogo ) evening 夕方 ( y?gata ) night 夜 ( yoru ) Clock time For clock times, you will be understood if you simply substitute gozen 午前 for “AM” and gogo 午後 for PM, although other time qualifiers like 朝 asa for morning and 夜 yoru for night may be more natural. The 24-hour clock is also commonly used in official contexts such as train schedules. TV schedules occasionally use a modified 24-hour clock, with late night showtimes counted from the previous day, e.g. Monday at 26:00 indicates Tuesday at 2:00 AM. six o’clock AM 朝 6 時 ( asa rokuji ) nine o’clock AM 午前 9 時 ( gozen kuji ) noon 正午 ( sh?go ) one o’clock PM 午後 1 時 ( gogo ichiji. ) two o’clock PM 午後 2 時 ( gogo niji ) midnight 夜 12 時 ( yoru j?niji ), 零時 ( reiji ) Duration _____ minute(s) _____ 分 ( fun or pun ) _____ hour(s) _____ 時間 ( jikan ) _____ day(s) _____ 日 ( nichi ) _____ week(s) _____ 週間 ( sh?kan ) _____ month(s) _____ か 月 ( kagetsu ) _____ year(s) _____ 年 ( nen ) Days today 今日 ( ky? ) yesterday 昨日 ( kin? ) tomorrow 明日 ( ashita ) this week 今週 ( konsh? ) last week 先週 ( sensh? ) next week 来週 ( raish? ) Sunday 日曜日 ( nichiy?bi ) Monday 月曜日 ( getsuy?bi ) Tuesday 火曜日 ( kay?bi ) Wednesday 水曜日 ( suiy?bi ) Thursday 木曜日 ( mokuy?bi ) Friday 金曜日 ( kin’y?bi ) Saturday 土曜日 ( doy?bi ) Days of the Month The 1st through the 10th of the month have special names: First day of the month 1 日 ( tsuitachi ) Second day of the month 2 日 ( futsuka ) Third day of the month 3 日 ( mikka ) Fourth day of the month 4 日 ( yokka ) Fifth day of the month 5 日 ( itsuka ) Sixth day of the month 6 日 ( muika ) Seventh day of the month 7 日 ( nanoka ) Eighth day of the month 8 日 ( y?ka ) Ninth day of the month 9 日 ( kokonoka ) Tenth day of the month 10 日 ( t?ka ) The other days of the month are more orderly, just add the suffix -nichi to the ordinal number. Note that 14, 20, and 24 deviate from this pattern. Eleventh day of the month 11 日 ( j?ichinichi ) Fourteenth day of the month 14 日 ( j?yokka ) Twentieth day of the month 20 日 ( hatsuka ) Twenty-fourth day of the month 24 日 ( nij?yokka ) Months Months are very orderly in Japanese, just add the suffix -gatsu to the ordinal number. January 1月 ( ichigatsu ) February 2月 ( nigatsu ) March 3月 ( sangatsu ) April 4月 ( shigatsu ) May 5月 ( gogatsu ) June 6月 ( rokugatsu ) July 7月 ( shichigatsu ) August 8月 ( hachigatsu ) September 9月 ( kugatsu ) October 10月 ( j?gatsu ) November 11月 ( j?ichigatsu ) December 12月 ( j?nigatsu ) Seasons Spring 春 ( haru ) Summer 夏 ( natsu ) Autumn 秋 ( aki ) Winter 冬 ( fuyu ) Writing time and date Dates are written in year/month/day (day of week) format, with markers: 2007 年 3 月 21 日 ( 火 ) Note that Imperial era years , based on the name and duration of the current Emperor’s reign, are also frequently used. 2007 in the Gregorian calendar corresponds to Heisei 19 ( 平成 19 年 ), which may be abbreviated as “H19”. Dates like “19/03/24” (March 24, Heisei 19) are also occasionally seen. Colors Many of the English words for colors are widely used and understood by almost all Japanese. These are indicated after the slash. Note that some Japanese colors are normally suffixed with -iro ( 色 ) to distinguish between the color and the object. For example, 茶 cha means “tea”, but 茶色 chairo means “tea-color” → “brown”. black 黒 / ブラック ( kuro / burakku ) white 白 / ホワイト ( shiro / howaito ) gray 灰 ( 色 ) / グレー ( hai(iro) / gur? ) red 赤 / レッド ( aka / reddo ) blue 青 / ブルー ( ao / bur? ) yellow 黄 ( 色 ) / イエロー ( ki(iro) / ier? ) green 緑 / グリーン ( midori / guriin ) orange 橙 / オレンジ ( daidai / orenji ) purple 紫 / パープル ( murasaki / p?puru ) brown 茶 ( 色 ) / ブラウン ( cha(iro) / buraun ) Transportation Bus and train How much is a ticket to _____? _____ までいくらですか ( _____ made ikura desu ka? ) One ticket to _____, please. _____ まで一枚お願いします ( _____ made ichimai onegaishimasu ) Where does this train/bus go? この [ 電車 / バス ] はどこ行きですか ( kono densha/basu wa doko yuki desuka? ) Where is the train/bus to _____? _____ 行きの [ 電車 / バス ] はどこですか ? ( _____ yuki no densha/basu wa doko desuka? ) Does this train/bus stop in _____? この [ 電車 / バス ] は _____ に止まりますか ( kono densha/basu wa _____ ni tomarimasuka? ) When does the train/bus for _____ leave? _____ 行きの [ 電車 / バス ] は何時に出発しますか ( _____ yuki no densha/basu wa nanji ni shuppatsu shimasuka? ) When will this train/bus arrive in _____? この [ 電車 / バス ] は何時に _____ に着きます ? ( kono densha/basu wa nanji ni _____ ni tsukimasuka? ) Directions How do I get to _____ ? _____ はどちらですか ? ( _____ wa dochira desu ka? ) …the train station? 駅 … ( eki… ) …the bus station? バス停 … ( basu tei.. ) …the airport? 空港 … ( k?k?… ) …downtown? 街の中心 … ( machi no ch?shin… ) …the youth hostel? ユース・ホステル … ( y?su hosuteru… ) …the _____ hotel? _____ ホテル … ( hoteru… ) …the _____ embassy/consulate? _____ 大使館 / 領事館 … ( _____ taishikan/ry?jikan… ) Where are there a lot of _____ _____ が多い所はどこですか ? ( _____ga ooi tokoro wa doko desuka? ) …lodgings? 宿 … ( yado… ) …restaurants? レストラン … ( resutoran… ) …bars? バー … ( baa ) …sites to see? 見物 … ( mimono… ) Where is _____? _____ はどこですか。 ( _____ wa doko desuka. ) Is it far from here? ここから遠いですか。 ( Koko kara tooi desu ka. ) Please show me on the map. 地図で指して下さい。 ( chizu de sashite kudasai ) street 道 ( michi ) Turn left. 左へ曲がってください。 ( Hidari e magatte kudasai. ) Turn right. 右へ曲がってください。 ( Migi e magatte kudasai. ) left 左 ( hidari ) right 右 ( migi ) straight ahead まっすぐ ( massugu ) towards the _____ _____ へ向かって ( e mukatte ) past the _____ _____ の先 ( no saki ) before the _____ _____ の前 ( no mae ) Watch for the _____. _____ が目印です。 ( ga mejirushi desu ) intersection 交差点 ( k?saten ) north 北 ( kita ) south 南 ( minami ) east 東 ( higashi ) west 西 ( nishi ) uphill 上り ( nobori ), also used for trains heading towards Tokyo downhill 下り ( kudari ), also used for trains coming from Tokyo Taxi Taxi! タクシー ! ( Taxi! ) Take me to _____, please. _____ までお願いします。 ( _____ made onegai shimasu. ) How much does it cost to get to _____? _____ までいくらですか ? ( _____ made ikura desuka ) Take me there, please. そこまでお願いします。 ( soko made onegai shimasu. ) Lodging Do you have any rooms available? 空いてる部屋ありますか ? ( Aiteru heya arimasuka? ) How much is a room for one person/two people? 一人 / 二人用の部屋はいくらですか ? ( Hitori/futari-y? no heya wa ikura desuka? ) Is the room Japanese/Western style? 和室 / 洋室ですか? ( Washitsu/y?shitsu desuka? ) Does the room come with… 部屋は … 付きですか ? ( Heya wa ___ tsuki desuka? ) …bedsheets? ベッドのシーツ … ( beddo no shiitsu… ) …a bathroom? 風呂場 ( furoba… ) …a telephone? 電話 ( denwa… ) …a TV? テレビ ? ( terebi… ) May I see the room first? 部屋を見てもいいですか ? ( heya o mitemo ii desuka? ) Do you have anything quieter? もっと [ 静かな ] 部屋ありますか ? ( motto [shizukana] heya arimasuka? ) …bigger? 広い ( hiroi ) …cleaner? きれいな ( kirei na ) …cheaper? 安い ( yasui ) OK, I’ll take it. はい、これで良いです。 ( hai, kore de ii desu. ) I will stay for _____ night(s). _____ 晩泊まります。 ( ____ ban tomarimasu. ) Do you know another place to stay? 他の宿はご存知ですか ? ( hoka no yado wa gozonji desuka? ) Do you have [a safe?] [ 金庫 ] ありますか ? ( [kinko] arimasuka? ) …lockers? … ロッカー ? ( rokkaa (locker) ) Is breakfast/supper included? 朝食 / 夕食は付きますか ? ( ch?shoku/y?shoku wa tsukimasuka? ) What time is breakfast/supper? 朝食 / 夕食は何時ですか ? ( ch?shoku/y?shoku wa nanji desuka? ) Please clean my room. 部屋を掃除してください。 ( heya o s?ji shite kudasai ) Please wake me at _____. _____ に起こしてください。 ( ____ ni okoshite kudasai. ) I want to check out. チェックアウトです。 ( chekku auto (check out) desu. ) Money Do you accept American/Australian/Canadian dollars? アメリカ / オーストラリア / カナダドルは使えますか ( Amerika/?sutoraria/kanada doru wa tsukae masuka? ) Do you accept British pounds? イギリスポンドは使えますか? ( igirisu pondo wa tsukaemasuka? ) Do you accept credit cards? クレジットカードは使えますか? ( kurejitto kaado (credit card) wa tsukaemasuka? ) Can you change money for me? お金両替できますか? ( okane ry?gae dekimasuka? ) Where can I get money changed? お金はどこで両替できますか? ( okane wa doko de ry?gae dekimasuka? ) Can you change a traveler’s check for me? トラベラーズ・チェック両替できますか? ( (traveler’s check) ry?gae dekimasuka? ) Where can I get a traveler’s check changed? トラベラーズ・チェックはどこで両替できますか? ( (traveler’s check) wa doko de ry?gae dekimasuka? ) What is the exchange rate? 為替レートはいくらですか? ( kawase reeto wa ikura desu ka? ) Where is an automatic teller machine (ATM)? ATM はどこにありますか? ( ATM wa doko ni arimasuka? ) Eating A table for one person/two people, please. 一人 / 二人です。 ( hitori/futari desu ) Please bring a menu. メニューを下さい。 ( menu o kudasai. ) Can I look in the kitchen? 調理場を見てもいいですか? ( ch?riba o mite mo ii desu ka? ) Is there a house specialty? お勧めはありますか? ( O-susume wa arimasuka? ) Is there a local specialty? この辺の名物はありますか? ( Kono hen no meibutsu wa arimasuka? ) Please choose for me. お任せします。 ( O-makase shimasu. ) I’m a vegetarian. ベジタリアンです。 ( Bejitarian desu. ) I don’t eat pork. 豚肉はだめです。 ( Butaniku wa dame desu. ) I don’t eat beef. 牛肉はだめです。 ( Gy?niku wa dame desu. ) I don’t eat raw fish. 生の魚はだめです。 ( Nama no sakana wa dame desu. ) Please do not use too much oil. 油を控えて下さい。 ( Abura o hikaete kudasai. ) fixed-price meal 定食 ( teishoku ) a la carte 一品料理 ( ippinry?ri ) breakfast 朝食 ( ch?shoku ) lunch 昼食 ( ch?shoku ) light meal/snack 軽食 ( keishoku ) supper 夕食 ( y?shoku ) Please bring _____. _____ を下さい。 ( _____ o kudasai. ) I want a dish containing _____. _____ が入ってるものを下さい。 ( ____ ga haitteru mono o kudasai. ) chicken 鶏肉 ( toriniku ) beef 牛肉 ( gy?niku ) fish 魚 ( sakana ) ham ハム ( hamu ) sausage ソーセージ ( s?seeji ) cheese チーズ ( chiizu ) eggs 卵 ( tamago ) salad サラダ ( sarada ) (fresh) vegetables ( 生 ) 野菜 ( (nama) yasai ) (fresh) fruit ( 生 ) 果物 ( (nama) kudamono ) bread パン ( pan ) toast トースト ( t?suto ) noodles 麺類 ( menrui ) pasta パスタ ( pasta ) rice ご飯 ( gohan ) beans 豆 ( mame ) May I have a glass/cup of _____? _____ を一杯下さい。 ( ____ o ippai kudasai. ) May I have a bottle of _____? _____ を一本下さい。 ( _____ o ippon kudasai. ) coffee コーヒー ( k?hii ) green tea お茶 ( o-cha ) black tea 紅茶 ( k?cha ) juice 果汁 ( kaj? ) water 水 ( mizu ) beer ビール ( biiru ) red/white wine 赤 / 白ワイン ( aka/shiro wain ) Do you have _____? _____ はありますか ? ( _____ wa arimasuka? ) chopsticks お箸 ( o-hashi ) fork フォーク ( f?ku ) spoon スプーン ( sup?n ) salt 塩 ( shio ) black pepper 胡椒 ( kosh? ) soy sauce 醤油 ( sh?yu ) ashtray 灰皿 ( haizara ) Excuse me, waiter? ( getting attention of server ) 済みません ( sumimasen ) (when starting a meal) いただきます。 (itadakimasu) It was delicious. (when finishing a meal) ご馳走さまでした。 ( Go-chis?-sama deshita. ) Please clear the plates. お皿を下げてください。 ( Osara o sagete kudasai. ) The check, please. お勘定お願いします。 ( O-kanjo onegai shimasu. ) On the phone Telephone 電話 ( Denwa ) Telephone number 電話番号 ( denwa bang? ) Phone book 電話帳 ( denwa ch? ) Answering machine 留守番電話 ( rusuban denwa ) Hello もしもし。 ( moshi moshi ) May I speak to ______ ______ をお願いします。 ( _____ o onegaishimasu. ) Is _____ there? _____ はいらっしゃいますか。 ( _____ wa irasshaimasu ka. ) Who is calling? どなたですか。 ( Donata desu ka. ) One moment, please. ちょっとお待ちください。 ( Chotto omachi kudasai. ) _____ is not here right now. _____ は今いません。 ( _____ wa ima imasen. ) I will call you again later. また後で電話します。 ( Mata atode denwa shimasu. ) I got the wrong number. 間違えました。 ( Machigaemashita. ) The line is busy. 話し中です。 ( Hanashi-ch? desu. ) What is your phone number? 電話番号は何番ですか。 ( Denwa bang? wa nan ban desu ka. ) Bars Sake talk Sake, known in Japanese as 日本酒 nihonshu , has a vocabulary all its own. Here is a brief introduction. atsukan 熱燗 Heated sake. Recommended only in winter with cheap sake. hiyashi, reishu 冷やし , 冷酒 Chilled sake. The way to drink better sake. issh?bin 一升瓶 The standard sake bottle, containing 10 g? , ie. 1.8 liters. ichig? 一合 The standard measure for servings of sake, around 180 milliliters. tokkuri 徳利 A small ceramic jug used to pour sake, contains around one g? masu 升 A square wooden box traditionally used to drink chilled sake, also contains one g? . Drink from the corner. choko ちょこ A tiny gulp-sized ceramic cup for sake. Do you serve alcohol? お酒ありますか ? ( O-sake arimasuka? ) Is there table service? テーブルサービスありますか ? ( T?buru s?bisu arimasuka? ) A beer/two beers, please. ビール一杯 / 二杯下さい。 ( Biiru ippai/nihai kudasai. ) A glass of red/white wine, please. 赤 / 白ワイン一杯下さい。 ( Aka/shiro wain ippai kudasai. ) A mug (of beer), please. ビールのジョッキ下さい。 ( Biiru no jokki kudasai. ) A bottle, please. ビン下さい . ( Bin kudasai. ) _____ ( hard liquor ) and _____ ( mixer ), please. _____ と _____ 下さい。 ( _____ to _____ kudasai. ) sake 日本酒 ( nihonshu ) Japanese liquor 焼酎 ( sh?ch? ) whiskey ウイスキー ( uisukii ) vodka ウォッカ ( wokka ) rum ラム ( ramu ) water 水 ( mizu ) club soda ソーダ ( s?da ) tonic water トニックウォーター ( tonikku u?t? ) orange juice オレンジジュース ( orenji j?su ) cola ( soda ) コーラ ( k?ra ) with ice オンザロック ( onzarokku ) Do you have any bar snacks? おつまみありますか ? ( o-tsumami arimasuka? ) One more, please. もう一つください。 ( M? hitotsu kudasai. ) Another round, please. みんなに同じものを一杯ずつください。 ( Minna ni onaji mono o ippai zutsu kudasai. ) When is closing time? 閉店は何時ですか ? ( Heiten wa nanji desuka? ) Shopping O, honorable prefix! Nearly any Japanese word can be prefixed with the respectful tags o- ( お ) or go- ( ご or 御 ), often translated with the unwieldy four-syllable word “honorable”. A few you might expect ? o-t?san ( お父さん ) is “honorable father”, and a few you might not ? o-shiri ( お尻 ) is “honorable buttocks”. Most of the time, they’re used to emphasize that the speaker is referring to the listener, so if someone enquires if after your honorable health ( お元気 o-genki ) it’s proper to strip off the honorific and reply that you are merely genki . However, for some words like gohan ( ご飯 ) “rice” and ocha ( お茶 ) “tea”, the prefix is inseparable and should always be used. In this phrasebook, the prefix is separated with a hyphen if it’s optional ( o-kane ), and joined to the word if it’s mandatory ( oisha ). Do you have this in my size? 私のサイズでありますか? ( Watashi no saizu de arimasuka? ) How much is this? いくらですか? ( Ikura desuka? ) That’s too expensive. 高過ぎます。 ( Takasugimasu. ) Would you take _____? _____ 円はどうですか? ( _____ wa d? desuka? ) expensive 高い ( takai ) cheap 安い ( yasui ) I can’t afford it. そんなにお金は持っていません。 ( Sonna-ni o-kane wa motte imasen. ) I don’t want it. 要らないです。 ( Iranai desu. ) You’re cheating me. 騙してるんだ。 ( Damashiteru n da. ) Use with caution! I’m not interested. 興味ないです。 ( Ky?mi nai desu. ) OK, I’ll take it. はい、それにします。 ( Hai, sore ni shimasu. ) Can I have a bag? 袋もらってもいいですか? ( Fukuro moratte mo ii desuka? ) Do you ship (overseas)? 海外へ発送出来ますか? ( Kaigai e hass? dekimasuka? ) I need… ___ が欲しいです。 ( ____ ga hoshii desu. ) …toothpaste. 歯磨き ( hamigaki ) …a toothbrush. 歯ブラシ ( ha-burashi ) …tampons. タンポン ( tanpon ) …soap. 石鹸 ( sekken ) …shampoo. シャンプー ( shanp? ) …pain reliever. ( e.g., aspirin or ibuprofen ) 鎮痛剤 ( chints?zai ) …cold medicine. 風邪薬 ( kazegusuri ) …stomach medicine. 胃腸薬 ( ich?yaku ) …a razor. 剃刀 ( kamisori ) …an umbrella. 傘 ( kasa ) …sunblock lotion. 日焼け止め ( hiyakedome ) …a postcard. 葉書 ( hagaki ) …postage stamps. 切手 ( kitte ) …batteries. 電池 ( denchi ) …writing paper. 紙 ( kami ) …a pen. ペン ( pen ) …English-language books. 英語の本 ( eigo no hon ) …English-language magazines. 英語の雑誌 ( eigo no zasshi ) …an English-language newspaper. 英語の新聞 ( eigo no shinbun ) …a Japanese-English dictionary. 和英辞典 ( waei jiten ) …an English-Japanese dictionary. 英和辞典 ( eiwa jiten ) Family Are you married? 結婚していますか。 ( Kekkon shiteimasu ka? ) I am married. 結婚しています。 ( Kekkon shiteimasu. ) I am single. 独身です。 ( Dokushin desu ) Do you have brothers and sisters? 兄弟がいますか。 ( Ky?dai ga imasu ka? ) Do you have children? 子供がいますか。 ( Kodomo ga imasu ka? ) Talking about your own family Family ties In Japanese, it’s always important to use less respectful terms for your own family and more respectful terms for another’s family. Note also that the words for older/younger brother/sister are different. Father 父 ( chichi ) Mother 母 ( haha ) Older Brother 兄 ( ani ) Older Sister 姉 ( ane ) Younger Brother 弟 ( ot?to ) Younger Sister 妹 ( im?to ) Grandfather 祖父 ( sofu ) Grandmother 祖母 ( sobo ) Uncle 叔父 / 伯父 ( oji ) Aunt 叔母 / 伯母 ( oba ) Husband 夫 ( otto ) / 主人 ( shujin ) Wife 妻 ( tsuma ) / 家内 ( kanai ) Son 息子 ( musuko ) Daughter 娘 ( musume ) Talking about another’s family Father お父さん ( ot?san ) Mother お母さん ( ok?san ) Older Brother お兄さん ( on?san ) Older Sister お姉さん ( on?san ) Younger Brother 弟さん ( ot?tosan ) Younger Sister 妹さん ( im?tosan ) Grandfather おじいさん ( oj?san ) Grandmother おばあさん ( ob?san ) Uncle おじさん ( ojisan ) Aunt おばさん ( obasan ) Husband ご主人 ( goshujin ) Wife 奥さん ( okusan ) Son 息子さん ( musukosan ) Daughter お嬢さん ( oj?san ) Driving I want to rent a car. レンタカーお願いします。 ( rent-a-car onegaishimasu. ) Can I get insurance? 保険入れますか ? ( hoken hairemasuka? ) Do you have a driver’s license? 免許証を持っていますか。 ( Menkyosh? o motte imasu ka. ) stop ( on a street sign ) 止まれ/とまれ ( tomare ) one way 一方通行 ( ipp? tsuk? ) caution 徐行 ( jok? ) no parking 駐車禁止 ( ch?sha kinshi ) speed limit 制限速度 ( seigen sokudo ) gas ( petrol ) station ガソリンスタンド ( gasorin sutando ) petrol ガソリン ( gasorin ) diesel 軽油 / ディーゼル ( keiyu / diizeru ) Authority In Japan , you can legally be incarcerated for twenty-three (23) days before you are charged, but you do have the right to see a lawyer after the first 48 hours of detention. Note that if you sign a confession, you will be convicted. I haven’t done anything (wrong). 何も ( 悪いこと ) してません。 ( Nani mo (warui koto) shitemasen. ) It was a misunderstanding. 誤解でした。 ( Gokai deshita. ) Where are you taking me? どこへ連れて行くのですか? ( Doko e tsurete yukuno desuka? ) Am I under arrest? 私は逮捕されてるのですか? ( Watashi wa taiho sareteruno desuka? ) I am a citizen of ____. ____  の国民です。 ( ____ no kokumin desu. ) I want to meet with the ____ embassy. ____ 大使館と会わせて下さい。 ( ____ taishikan to awasete kudasai. ) I want to meet with a lawyer. 弁護士と会わせて下さい。 ( Bengoshi to awasete kudasai. ) Can it be settled with a fine? 罰金で済みますか? ( Bakkin de sumimasuka? ) Note: You can say this to a traffic cop, but bribery is highly unlikely to work in Japan . Offensive Language It might happen that there is a need to express negative emotions towards others. Or it might happen that others do this to you. In those cases it is useful to understand some Japanese offensive words. Please use these with care. Fool or idiot バカ ( baka ) Fool or idiot, used in Kansai アホ ( aho ) – writing unsure Doing something untimely まぬけ ( manuke ) A slow person のろま ( noroma ) Being bad at something 下手 ( heta ) Being very bad at something 下手糞 ( hetakuso ) A stingy person ケチ ( kechi ) An old man ジジイ ( jijii ) An old woman ババア ( babaa ) Not being cool ダサイ ( dasai )* Fussy or depressing ウザイ ( uzai )* Creepy キモイ ( kimoi )* Drop dead! くたばれ ( kutabare ) Get out of the way! どけ ( doke ) Noisy! うるさい ( urusai ) * These words are mostly used by young people Most Common sentences used in daily life • I watashi • He Khare • She Khanojyo • You Aanata • It Sore • Come Kuru • Came kimashita • Will come kuku • Open Aakeru • Opened Aakemashita • Will open Aakeru • Sit suwaru • Walk Aaruku • Eat Taberu Kharewa • Drink Nomu • Win Khatsu • Go Iku • Run Hashiru • I go Watashiwa ikimasu • He goes Kharewa ikimasu • He eats an apple Kharewa ringo o tabemasu • He is eating an apple Kharewa ringo o tabete imasu • He ate an apple Kharewa ringo o tabemashita • I saw the film last week Watashiwa senshu eiga o mimashita • She came by bus yesterday Khino khanojyowa basude ikimashita • They went to the temple Kharerawa oterae ikimashita • He slept the whole night Kharewa yoru jyu o nemashita • He wrote well in the examination Kharewa shikende yoku khakimashita • He has eaten Kharewa tabemashita • He had eaten Kharewa tabete shimaimashita • He had gone Kharewa mou ikimashita • He had come Kharewa mou kimashita • He will eat Kharewa tabemasu • He will go Kharewa ikimasu • He will come Kharewa kimasu • What is your name? Aanatano namaewa nan desu ka • What Nan/Nani • Your Aanata • Name Namae • What did you do? Nani o shimashita ka • What should I do? Watashiwa nani o suru ka • What are the questions? Shitumonwa nan desu ka • What were the questions? Shitumonwa nan deshita ka • What is the last question? Saigono shitumonwa nan desu ka • What is written in the letter? Tegamide nani o khaite arimasuka • What you had been told? Aanatawa nani o iwaremashita ka • What will be the answer? Kotaewa nan deshyo ka • Why did you come? Doushite kimashita ka • Why did you sleep? Doushite nemashita ka • Why did you tell him to go? Doushite khareni iko to imashita ka • Why did he bring the bag? Doushite aanatawa kabanga motte kimashita ka • Why did she pay the money? Khanojyowa doushite okane o haraimashita ka • Why did they sit there? Doushite sokode suwatte imasu ka • Why do you drive the car? Doushite aanatawa kurumano unten shimashita ka • Why are they late for the meeting? Doushite kaigide osoku narimashita ka • How did you come? Aanatawa dou/nande kimashita ka • How did you sleep? Aanatawa dou nemashita ka • How did you drive? Aanatawa dou unten shimashita ka • How did you write? Aanatawa dou kakimashita ka • How many apples are there in my hand? Watashino teni ringo ga ikustu arimasu ka • How many did you take? Aanatawa ikustu torimashita ka • How much did he pay you? Kharewa ikura haraimashita ka • How much distance to go?  Dore gurai no kyori • How was the journey yesterday? Kimono ryokowa dou deshita ka • Which way did you come? Aanatawa dokokara kimashita ka • Which is your favorite color? Aanatano skinner irowa donna desu ka • In which room did you sleep? Aanatawa donna heyade nemashita ka • Which story did you tell? Aanatawa donna monogatario iimashita ka • Which is the sweetest fruit? Donna kudamono ga ichiban amai desu ka • Which is the best newspaper in Hindi? Hindigodewa ichiban ii shinbunwa donna desu ka • Which Indian state has the largest population? Indodewa ichiban ooi jinkoga doko desu ka • Where did you come from? Aanatawa dokokara kimashita ka • Where did you sleep? Aanatawa dokode nemashita ka • Where is the manager’s cabin? Kachono heyawa dochira desu ka • Where should I go? Watashiwa dokoe iku ka • Whom should I contact? Watashiwa dareni renraku suru ka/shita hoga ii desu ka • Is it a book? Korewa hon desu ka • It is a book Korewa hon desu • Is it the answer? Korewa kotae desu ka/Kotaewa kore desu ka • It is the answer Korewa kotae desu/ Kotaewa kore desu • Will you come with me? Watashi to ishyoni kimasen ka/kimasu ka • I shall come with you. Aanata to ishyoni kimasu • Will you give me your pen? Pen o kudasaimasen ka • Yes, of course. Hai, mochiron • I love you. Watashiwa anatani aaio shite imasu • Can you give me your pen? Watashini Pen o kuremasen ka • Can you lift the box? Hakoga motemasu ka • Can you write the exam? Shikenga ukeraremasu ka • Did you have your lunch? Hirugohan o tabemashita ka

Colloquial & Contemporary Audio Course

Colloquial CANTONESE – Track07

Colloquial & Contemporary Audio Course

Many a times the languages taught in courses are so literary that one may get strange attention if spoken in that way. While languages have grown and evolved the contemporary language is the one which is used by common man and on the streets. The language which is of current age and not spoken centuries ago, is the one called as Colloquial language. E.g. If you are disappointed or irritated you might want to say “That’s so absurd” where as we usually land up saying “That’s Bullshit” which is perfectly accepted way of expression in present era. If the same had been used few decades earlier it might have been taken as offensive. The usages of such expressions have increased in recent years and hence a modern person knows what to make out of it. Colloquial language is different in vocabulary and certain expressions where as the basic of the language always remains same. Colloquial language is important because usually expressions today have become more bold and loud. People are more expressive in their emotions these days and it reflects in the language. More over Colloquial language reflects the common man’s street language rather than literary language. Imagine some one saying “Hey dude” to a very old person and imagine his plight when he is unable to make out the meaning of expression. Colloquial language course gives you the variation of the language used as of now. And it gives you more confidence of moving around with more certainty on modern / contemporary outlook.

Radio Broadcast Type Audio Course

Radio Broadcast Type Audio Course

This is the simulated class room environment. Imagine a class of a foreign language going on with teacher teaching to the students. And suppose you are not sitting in the class room but outside the class room where you are able to just hear the proceedings and not see anything.

Imagine a student has a difficulty in foreign language and he is talking to the teacher on the same. And you happen to hear the conversation between them.

In both situations you learn virtually but the course has a scope of your involvement because you can consider being part of that conversation or class and even reacting or responding to the teacher’s comments and talks.

This course has proved immensely beneficial because it looks like a live recording of a live class which you will be using for your learning anytime later.

Radio Broadcast Type Audio Course is something which you can independently listen and get involved in the learning. The advantage of this course is that in a live class when you are present you can not immediately ask to repeat what teacher said or may be not many times. But in this course you can repeat it as many times till you understand it clearly.

Radio Broadcast Type Audio Course is a live class session and that makes it a perfect way to learn.

Broadcast Japanese – Eat, Drink, and Be Merry!

Broadcast Chinese

Broadcast Sapnish

Instant learning Audio Course

Instant learning Audio Course

Similar to Most Common Phrases , Instant Learning Audio Course picks up for you only the most essential and important phrases and then develop them into pattern to make you understand the spoken language.

The idea here is little different than most courses earlier. The assumption is that the learner has suddenly come into a situation where language understanding for him is most important to survive and carry out the situation. Presumably the learner has traveled on short notice or landed up without plan in the foreign circumstances.

With this in mind, the course gives you the most important and basic bare minimum inputs initially and then tries to develop a proficiency based on available time with the learner.

Instant Learning Audio Course essentially prepares you on fast track and makes sure that even if you go through a week’s learning, you have enough learning in you to survive through the situation.

Instant Learning Audio Course has become most popular because most of us do not look forward to spend more time and want only bare minimum stock of useful language content which can be used effectively.

Though the Instant Learning Audio Course looks short term it actually has huge content and depends on the level of depth the learner wants to go and there is ample content for deeper knowledge.

Instant German

Living & Spoken Course

Living and Spoken – RUSSIAN Track 01

Living & Spoken Course

Living & Spoken Course is a special course to address the local requirement of the region and culture. Imagine you are learning a foreign language in your home town, but as a learning process a small township is built around you so that you get a real feeling of foreign language and culture..

Living & Spoken Course gives more stress on cultural way of learning. If you can get to know how the native people think and react in the situations then one gets a real responding way of language.

Living & Spoken Course takes you through different situations and prepares you exactly the way the native person will react and speak. The way native people think and imagine and interact is the basis for this course and it makes this course quite realistic and effective.

Imagine a situation like you have wrongly occupied a seat in a train or bus and someone claims it as reserved by him. This happens very oftenly. Or imagine you have wrongly parked your vehicle where someone else is supposed to. Both these situations are likely to invite argument. And exactly the way a person behaves depends lot on the way his culture has taught him to tackle the situation. Some cultures are very polite and logical and some are very aggressive and demanding. The way one uses language is what the new learner should adopt.

Living & Spoken Course is essentially a learning course for those who literally want to be part of the new community and become the inherent element of it.

Help Yourself Audio Course

Help Yourself Audio Course

Help Yourself Audio Course dwells on the principle that one can learn when one is independently thrown in the situation then one will find a way out and survive through.

Relying more on gestures and signs this course wonderfully progresses to imbibe language through reflexes. When you make certain action or gesture and associate it with a word then its easy to retain and reproduce.

Imagine you are showing someone a direction then obviously your hands will make some action and while your hands are showing the direction whatever you are saying the person will understand irrespective of the language spoken.

Though gestures, expressions, signs and actions work mostly with verbs, the reflexes that are associated with language remain permanently in mind hence a perfect learning.

This course also covers a complete range of learning levels and has proven to be quiet effective.

TY Instant Japanese 1

Think & Talk Course

Think & Talk Fench I, Intro

Think & Talk Course

Think & Talk Course is a simple audio learning course with an emphasis on the way we normally try to speak a new language. We usually translate things in mind before we say things when we are using the new language which is not our usual language.

In this process we try to construct a sentence by putting words into the sentence of new language. The outcome usually is raw initially but the communication is done and the message has been conveyed. Most of the people who learn foreign language formally or informally usually construct sentences in mind before saying it.

This is very natural and obvious phenomenon and hence the course uses these basic instincts of human kind and develops further to learn languages.

The approach for Think & Talk Course looks very complicated but as this uses a natural phenomenon the learner does not feel any complications and learns with ease.

Audio Book – Narration Course

Audio Book | BLEACHERS – By John Grisham

Audio Book – Narration Course

BLEACHERS – By John Grisham

The road to Rake Field ran beside the school, past the old band hall and the tennis courts, through a tunnel of two perfect rows of red and yellow maples planted and paid for by the boosters, then over a small hill to a lower area covered with enough asphalt for a thousand cars. The road stopped in front of an immense gate of brick and wrought iron that announced the presence of RakeField, and beyond the gate was a chain-link fence that encircled the hallowed ground. On Friday nights, the entire town of Messina waited for the gate to open, then rushed to the bleachers where seats were claimed and nervous pregame rituals were followed. The black, paved pasture around Rake Field would overflow long before the opening kickoff, sending the out-of-town traffic into the dirt roads and alleys and remote parking zones behind the school’s cafeteria and its baseball field.

Opposing fans had a rough time in Messina, but not nearly as rough as the opposing teams.

Driving slowly along the road to Rake Field was Neely Crenshaw, slowly because he had not been back in many years, slowly because when he saw the lights of the field the memories came roaring back, as he knew they would. He rolled through the red and yellow maples, bright in their autumn foliage. Their trunks had been a foot thick inNeely’s glory days, and now their branches touched above him and their leaves dropped like snow and covered the road to Rake Field.

It was late in the afternoon, in October, and a soft wind from the north chilled the air.

He stopped his car near the gate and stared at the field. All movements were slow now, all thoughts weighted heavily with sounds and images of another life. When he played the field had no name; none was needed. Every person in Messina knew it simply as The Field. “The boys are on The Field early this morning,” they would say at the cafes downtown. “What time are we cleaning up The Field?” they would ask at the Rotary Club. “Rake says we need new visitors’ bleachers at The Field,” they would say at the boosters’ meeting. “Rake’s got ’em on The Field late tonight,” they would say at the beer joints north of town.

No piece of ground in Messina was more revered than The Field. Not even the cemetery.

After Rake left they named it after him. Neely was gone by then, of course, long gone with no plans to return.

Why he was returning now wasn’t completely clear, but deep in his soul he’d always known this day would come, the day somewhere out there in the future when he was called back. He’d always known that Rake would eventually die, and of course there would be a funeral with hundreds of former players packed around the casket, all wearing their Spartan green, all mourning the loss of a legend they loved and hated. But he’d told himself many times that he would never return to The Field as long as Rake was alive.

In the distance, behind the visitors’ stands, were the two practice fields, one with lights. No other school in the state had such a luxury, but then no other town worshiped its football as thoroughly and collectively as Messina. Neely could hear a coach’s whistle and the thump and grunts of bodies hitting each other as the latest Spartan team got ready for Friday night. He walked through the gate and across the track, painted dark green of course.

The end zone grass was manicured and suitable for putting, but there were a few wild sprigs inching up the goalpost. And there was a patch or two of weeds in one corner, and now that he’d noticed Neely looked even closer and saw untrimmed growth along the edge of the track. In the glory days dozens of volunteers gathered every Thursday afternoon and combed The Field with gardening shears, snipping out every wayward blade of grass.

The glory days were gone. They left with Rake. Now Messina football was played by mortals, and the town had lost its swagger.

Coach Rake had once cursed loudly at a well-dressed gentleman who committed the sin of stepping onto the sacred Bermuda grass of The Field. The gentleman backtracked quickly,then walked around the sideline, and when he drew closer Rake realized he had just cursed the Mayor of Messina. The Mayor was offended. Rake didn’t care. No one walked on his field.The Mayor, unaccustomed to being cursed, set in motion an ill-fated effort to fire Rake, who shrugged it off. The locals defeated the Mayor four to one as soon as his name appeared on the next ballot.

In those days, Eddie Rake had more political clout in Messina than all the politicians combined, and he thought nothing of it.

Neely stuck to the sideline and slowly made his way toward the home stands, then he stopped cold and took a deep breath as the pregame jitters hit him hard. The roar of a long-ago crowd came back, a crowd packed tightly together up there, in the bleachers, with the band in the center of things blaring away with its endless renditions of the Spartan fight song. And on the sideline just a few feet away, he could see number 19 nervously warming up as the mob worshiped him. Number 19 was a high school ail-American, a highly recruited quarterback with a golden arm, fast feet, plenty of size, maybe the greatest Messina ever produced.

Number 19 was Neely Crenshaw in another life.

He walked a few steps along the sideline, stopped at the fifty where Rake had coached hundreds of games, and looked again at the silent bleachers where ten thousand people once gathered on Friday nights to pour their emotions upon a high school football team.

The crowds were half that now, he’d heard.

Fifteen years had passed since number 19 had thrilled so many. Fifteen years sinceNeely had played on the sacred turf. How many times had he promised himself he would never do what he was now doing? How many times had he sworn he would never come back?

On a practice field in the distance a coach blew a whistle and someone was yelling, butNeely barely heard it. Instead he was hearing the drum corps of the band, and the raspy, unforgettable voice of Mr. Bo Michael on the public address, and the deafening sound of the bleachers rattling as the fans jumped up and down.

And he heard Rake bark and growl, though his coach seldom lost his cool in the heat of battle. The cheerleaders were over there—bouncing, chanting, short skirts, tights, tanned and firm legs.Neely had his pick back then………………………………………